I have the pleasure to introduce to the academic community and the rest of the reading public, the 9th edition of The Beam: Journal of Arts & Science, Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic Sokoto. This journal aims at disseminating discoveries as well as other research output and findings in the art and science disciplines towards achieving sustainable educational development in Nigeria.
Thus, all articles published in this journal have been subjected to extensive review process to ensure originality and conformity with the required academic standards of writings. However, opinions and views expressed in such articles remain the ownership of the respective authors.
It is my hope that this 9th edition will not only find good reading among intellectuals and academics but will also contribute immensely to the promotion of academic standard and by extension, to the socio-economic well-being of our society.
I wish you a happy reading.
Prof. Aminu. A. Ibrahim
(Rector, Umaru Ali Shinkafi Polytechnic Sokoto)